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100 X 100 mg
General: Phenytoin capsules, are formulated with the sodium salt of phenytoin. The free acid form of phenytoin is used in the phenytoin suspensions (30 mg/5 mL (pediatric) and 125 mg/5 mL). Because there is approximately an 8% increase in drug content with the free acid form over that of the sodium salt, dosage adjustments and serum level monitoring may be necessary when switching from a product formulated with the free acid to a product formulated with the sodium salt and vice versa. For all oral formulations, dosage should be individualized to provide maximum benefit. In some cases serum drug level determinations may be necessary for optimal dosage adjustments. Optimum control without clinical signs of toxicity occurs more often with serum levels between 10-20 mcg/mL, although some mild cases of tonic-clonic (grand mal) epilepsy may be controlled with lower serum levels of phenytoin. With recommended dosage a period of seven to ten days may be required to achieve steady state drug levels with phenytoin, and changes in dosage (increase or decrease) should not be carried out at intervals shorter than seven to ten days.
Adult: Dosage Divided daily dosage For oral capsules, patients who have received no previous treatment may be started on 300 mg daily, to be taken in three equally divided doses, and the dosage then adjusted to suit individual requirements. For most adults, the satisfactory maintenance dosage will be 300 mg to 400 mg daily, to be taken in three to four equally divided doses respectively. An increase up to 600mg daily may be made if necessary. Non-emergency oral loading dose in adult patients An oral loading dose of phenytoin may be used for non-emergency initiation of therapy in adults who require rapid steady state serum levels, and for whom intravenous administration is not desirable. This dosing regimen should be reserved for patients in a clinic or hospital setting where phenytoin serum levels can be closely monitored. Patients with a history of renal or liver disease should not receive the oral loading dose regimen. The recommended oral loading dose is one gram of phenytoin divided into three doses (400 mg, 300 mg, 300 mg) and administered at two hour intervals. Normal maintenance dosage is then instituted 24 hours after the loading dose, with frequent serum level determinations.
Pediatric Dosage: For oral capsules, initially, 5 mg/kg/day in two or three equally divided doses with subsequent dosage individualized to a maximum of 300 mg daily. A recommended daily maintenance dosage is usually 4 to 8 mg/kg. Children over 6 years and adolescents may require the minimum adult dose (300 mg/day). If the daily dosage cannot be divided equally, the larger dose should be given at bedtime.
Grand mal, psychomotor seizures.
Hypersensitivity to hydantoin. Phenytoin is contraindicated in those patients who are hypersensitive to phenytoin or its inactive ingredients, or other hydantoins.
General: Phenytoin is not effective for absence (petit mal) seizures. If tonic-clonic (grand mal) and absence (petit mal) seizures are present, combined drug therapy is needed. Phenytoin is not indicated for seizures due to hypoglycemic or other metabolic causes. Appropriate diagnostic procedures should be performed as indicated. Phenytoin should not be abruptly discontinued because of the possibility of increased seizure frequency, including status epilepticus. When, in the judgment of the clinician, the need for dosage reduction, discontinuation, or substitution of alternative anticonvulsant medication arises, this should be done gradually. However, in the event of an allergic or hypersensitivity reaction, rapid substitution of alternative therapy may be necessary. In this case alternative therapy should be an anticonvulsant drug not belonging to the hydantoin chemical class. A small percentage of individuals who have been treated with phenytoin have been shown to metabolize the drug slowly. Slow metabolism may be due to limited enzyme availability and lack of induction; it appears to be genetically determined (polymorphism). Acute alcoholic intake may increase phenytoin serum levels while chronic alcoholic use may decrease serum levels. Suicidal ideation and behavior have been reported in patients treated with anti-epileptic agents in several indications. A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials of anti-epileptic drugs has also shown a small increased risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. The mechanism of this risk is not known and the available data do not exclude the possibility of an increased risk for phenytoin.
Suicide: Phenytoin capsules contain lactose and may cause an allergic reaction in patients who are sensitive to lactose. Anticonvulsant Hypersensitivity Syndrome (AHS) Patients at higher risk for developing AHS include black patients, patients who have a family history of or who have experienced this syndrome in the past, and immuno-suppressed patients. The syndrome is more severe in previously sensitized individuals. If a patient is diagnosed with AHS, discontinue the phenytoin and provide appropriate supportive measures. is a rare drug induced, multiorgan syndrome which is potentially fatal and occurs in some patients taking anticonvulsant medication. It is characterized by fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, and other multiorgan pathologies, often hepatic. The mechanism is unknown. The interval between first drug exposure and symptoms is usually 2-4 weeks but has been reported in individuals receiving anticonvulsants for 3 or more months. Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) reflects a serious hypersensitivity reaction to drugs, characterized by skin rash, fever, lymph node enlargement, and internal organ involvement. Cases of DRESS have been noted in patients taking phenytoin.Patients at higher risk for developing AHS include black patients, patients who have a family history of or who have experienced this syndrome in the past, and immuno-suppressed patients. The syndrome is more severe in previously sensitized individuals. If a patient is diagnosed with AHS, discontinue the phenytoin and provide appropriate supportive measures.
Central Nervous System Effect: Serum levels of phenytoin sustained above the optimal range may produce confusional states referred to as “delirium,” “psychosis,” or “encephalopathy,” or rarely irreversible cerebellar dysfunction. Accordingly, at the first sign of acute toxicity, determination of serum drug levels is recommended. Dose reduction of phenytoin therapy is indicated if serum levels are excessive; if symptoms persist, termination of phenytoin therapy is recommend.
Hematopoietic Effect: There have been a number of reports suggesting a relationship between phenytoin and the development of lymphadenopathy (local or generalized) including benign lymph node hyperplasia, pseudolymphoma, lymphoma, and Hodgkin’s disease. Although a cause and effect relationship has not been established, the occurrence of lymphadenopathy indicates the need to differentiate such a condition from other types of lymph node pathology. Lymph node involvement may occur with or without symptoms and signs resembling serum sickness – e.g., fever, rash, and liver involvement. In all cases of lymphadenopathy, follow-up observation for an extended period is indicated and every effort should be made to achieve seizure control using alternative anticonvulsant drugs. While macrocytosis and megaloblastic anemia have occurred, these conditions usually respond to folic acid therapy. If folic acid is added to phenytoin therapy, a decrease in seizure control may occur.
Hepatic/Immunologic Effect: The liver is the chief site of biotransformation of phenytoin. Patients with impaired liver function, elderly patients, or those who are gravely ill may show early signs of toxicity. Toxic hepatitis, and liver damage, have been reported and may, in rare cases, be fatal. Cases of acute hepatotoxicity, including infrequent cases of acute hepatic failure, have been reported with phenytoin. These incidents have been associated with a hypersensitivity syndrome characterized by fever, skin eruptions, and lymphadenopathy, and usually occur within the first 2 months of treatment. Other common manifestations include arthralgias, rash, jaundice, hepatomegaly, elevated serum transaminase levels, leukocytosis, and eosinophilia. The clinical course of acute phenytoin hepatotoxicity ranges from prompt recovery to fatal outcomes. In these patients with acute hepatotoxicity, phenytoin should be immediately discontinued and not re-administered. Several individual case reports have suggested that there may be an increased, although still rare, incidence of hypersensitivity reactions, including skin rash and hepatotoxicity, in black patients.
For full details see prescribing information.
Body as a Whole: Anaphylactoid reaction, and anaphylaxis
Central Nervous System: The most common manifestations encountered with phenytoin therapy are referable to this system and are usually dose-related. These include nystagmus, ataxia, slurred speech, decreased coordination, and mental confusion. Dizziness, insomnia, transient nervousness, motor twitchings, headache, paresthesia and somnolence have also been observed. There have also been rare reports of phenytoin-induced dyskinesias, including chorea, dystonia, tremor, and asterixis, similar to those induced by phenothiazine and other neuroleptic drugs. A predominantly sensory peripheral polyneuropathy has been observed in patients receiving long-term phenytoin therapy.
Connective Tissue System: Coarsening of the facial features, enlargement of the lips, gingival hyperplasia, hypertrichosis, and Peyronie’s disease.
Gastrointestinal System: Nausea, vomiting, constipation, toxic hepatitis, and liver damage.
Hemapoietic System: Hemapoietic complications, some fatal, have occasionally been reported in association with administration of phenytoin. These have included thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia, agranulocytosis, and pancytopenia with or without bone marrow suppression. Macrocytosis and megaloblastic anemia have also occurred. Lymphadenopathy including benign lymph node hyperplasia, pseudolymphoma, lymphoma and Hodgkin’s disease have been reported.
For full details see prescribing information.
There are many drugs which may increase or decrease serum phenytoin levels or which phenytoin may affect. Determinations of serum phenytoin concentrations are especially helpful when possible drug interactions are suspected. The most commonly occurring drug interactions are listed below.
Drugs which may increase phenytoin serum levels: Various drugs may increase phenytoin serum levels either by decreasing its rate of metabolism by the hepatic CYP450 2C9 and 2C19 enzymatic systems (e.g. dicumarol, disulfiram, omeprazole, ticlopidine), by competing for protein binding sites (e.g. salicylates, sulfisoxazole, tolbutamide), or by a combination of both processes (e.g. phenylbutazone, valproate sodium).
For full details see prescribing information.
Pregnancy and Lactation
Pregnancy: A number of reports suggest an association between the use of anticonvulsant drugs by women with epilepsy and a higher incidence of birth defects in children born to these women. Data are more extensive with respect to phenytoin and phenobarbital, but these are also the most commonly prescribed anticonvulsant drugs. Less systematic or anecdotal reports suggest a possible similar association with the use of all known anticonvulsant drugs. The reports suggesting a higher incidence of birth defects in children of drug-treated epileptic women cannot be regarded as adequate to prove a definite cause and effect relationship. There are intrinsic methodologic problems in obtaining adequate data on drug teratogenicity in humans. Genetic factors or the epileptic condition itself may be more important than drug therapy in leading to birth defects. The great majority of mothers on anticonvulsant medication deliver normal infants. It is important to note that anticonvulsant drugs should not be discontinued in patients in whom the drug is administered to prevent major seizures because of the strong possibility of precipitating status epilepticus with attendant hypoxia and threat to life. In individual cases where the severity and frequency of the seizure disorder are such that the removal of medication does not pose a serious threat to the patient, discontinuation of the drug may be considered prior to and during pregnancy although it cannot be said with any confidence that even minor seizures do not pose some hazard to the developing embryo or fetus. The prescribing physician will wish to weigh these considerations in treating or counseling epileptic women of child-bearing potential. In addition to the reports of increased incidence of congenital malformations such as cleft lip/palate and heart malformations in children of women receiving phenytoin and other anticonvulsant drugs, there have been reports of a fetal hydantoin syndrome. This consists of prenatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, and mental deficiency in children born to mothers who have received phenytoin, barbiturates, alcohol, or trimethadione. However, these features are all interrelated and are frequently associated with intrauterine growth retardation from other causes. There have been isolated reports of malignancies, including neuroblastoma, in children whose mothers received phenytoin during pregnancy. An increase in seizure frequency during pregnancy occurs in a high proportion of patients because of altered phenytoin absorption or metabolism. Periodic measurement of serum phenytoin levels is particularly valuable in the management of a pregnant epileptic patient as a guide to an appropriate adjustment of dosage. However, postpartum restoration of the original dosage will probably be indicated. Neonatal coagulation defects have been reported within the first 24 hours in babies born to epileptic mothers receiving phenobarbital and/or phenytoin. Vitamin K has been shown to prevent or correct this defect and has been recommended to be given to the mother before delivery and to the neonate after birth.
Nursing Mothers: Infant breast-feeding is not recommended for women taking this drug because phenytoin appears to be secreted in low concentrations in human milk. Phenytoin concentration in breast milk is approximately one-third of the corresponding maternal plasma concentration.
The lethal dose in pediatric patients is not known. The lethal dose in adults is estimated to be 2 to 5 grams. The initial symptoms are nystagmus, ataxia, and dysarthria. Other signs are tremor, hyperreflexia, somnolence, drowsiness, lethargy, slurred speech, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting. The patient may become comatose and hypotensive. Death is due to respiratory and circulatory depression. There are marked variations among individuals with respect to phenytoin serum levels where toxicity may occur. Nystagmus on lateral gaze usually appears at 20 mcg/mL, and ataxia at 30 mcg/mL; dysarthria and lethargy appear when the serum concentration is > 40 mcg/mL, but a concentration as high as 50 mcg/mL has been reported without evidence of toxicity. As much as 25 times the therapeutic dose has been taken to result in a serum concentration > 100 mcg/mL with complete recovery.
Treatment: Treatment is nonspecific since there is no known antidote. The adequacy of the respiratory and circulatory systems should be carefully observed and appropriate supportive measures employed. Hemodialysis can be considered since phenytoin is not completely bound to plasma proteins. Total exchange transfusion has been used in the treatment of severe intoxication in pediatric patients. In acute overdose the possibility of the presence of other CNS depressants, including alcohol, should be borne in mind.