Presentation and Status in Health Basket
Because of possible physical incompatibilities, methylprednisolone acetate with lidocaine should not be diluted or mixed with other solutions.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.
Therapy with methylprednisolone acetate with lidocaine does not obviate the need for the conventional measures usually employed. Although this method of treatment will ameliorate symptoms, it is in no sense a cure and the hormone has no effect on the cause of the inflammation.
1. Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis: The dose for intra-articular administration depends upon the size of the joint and varies with the severity of the condition in the individual patient. In chronic cases, injections may be repeated at intervals ranging from one to five or more weeks depending upon the degree of relief obtained from the initial injection.
Please refer to Table 1 at the attached doctor’s leaflet for General guide for dosage.
Procedure: It is recommended that the anatomy of the joint involved be reviewed before attempting intra-articular injection. In order to obtain the full anti-inflammatory effect, it is important that the injection be made into the synovial space. Employing the same sterile technique as for a lumbar puncture, a sterile 20 to 24 gauge needle (on a dry syringe) is quickly inserted into the synovial cavity. Procaine infiltration is elective. The aspiration of only a few drops of joint fluid proves the joint space has been entered by the needle. The injection site for each joint is determined by that location where the synovial cavity is most superficial and most free of large vessels and nerves. With the needle in place, the aspirating syringe is removed and replaced by a second syringe containing the desired amount of methylprednisolone acetate with lidocaine. The plunger is then pulled outward slightly to aspirate synovial fluid and to make sure the needle is still in the synovial space. After injection, the joint is moved gently a few times to aid mixing of the synovial fluid and the suspension. The site is covered with a small sterile dressing.
Suitable sites for intra-articular injection are the knee, ankle, wrist, elbow, shoulder, phalangeal, and hip joints. Since difficulty is occasionally encountered in entering the hip joint, precautions should be taken to avoid any large blood vessels in the area. Joints not suitable for injection are those that are anatomically inaccessible, such as the spinal joints and those like the sacroiliac joints that are devoid of synovial space. Treatment failures are most frequently the result of failure to enter the joint space. Little or no benefit follows injection into surrounding tissue. If failures occur when injections into the synovial spaces are certain, as determined by aspiration of fluid, repeated injections are usually futile. Local therapy does not alter the underlying disease process, and whenever possible comprehensive therapy including physiotherapy and orthopedic correction should be employed.
Following intra-articular corticosteroid therapy, care should be taken to avoid overuse of joints in which symptomatic benefit has been obtained. Negligence in this matter may permit an increase in joint deterioration that will more than offset the beneficial effects of the steroid.
Unstable joints should not be injected. Repeated intra-articular injection may in some cases result in instability of the joint. X-ray follow-up is suggested in selected cases to detect deterioration.
If a local anesthetic is used prior to injection of methylprednisolone acetate with lidocaine, the anesthetic package insert should be read carefully and all the precautions observed.
2. Bursitis: The area around the injection site is prepared in a sterile way and a wheal at the site made with 1 percent procaine hydrochloride solution. A 20 to 24 gauge needle attached to a dry syringe is inserted into the bursa and the fluid aspirated. The needle is left in place and the aspirating syringe changed for a small syringe containing the desired dose. After injection, the needle is withdrawn and a small dressing applied.
3. Miscellaneous: Ganglion, Tendinitis, Epicondylitis: In the treatment of conditions such as tendinitis or tenosynovitis, care should be taken, following application of a suitable antiseptic to the overlying skin, to inject the suspension into the tendon sheath rather than into the substance of the tendon. The tendon may be readily palpated when placed on a stretch. When treating conditions such as epicondylitis, the area of greatest tenderness should be outlined carefully and the suspension infiltrated into the area. For ganglia of the tendon sheaths, the suspension is injected directly into the cyst. The usual sterile precautions should be observed, of course, with each injection.
The dose in the treatment of the various conditions of the tendinous or bursal structures listed above varies with the condition being treated and ranges from 4 to 30 mg. In recurrent or chronic conditions, repeated injections may be necessary.
Depo-Medrol with Lidocaine vials are intended for single dose use only.
Depo-Medrol may be used by any of the following routes: Intra-articular, Intrabursal, Intrasynovial Cyst and Tendon Sheath injection.
It must not be used by the intrathecal or intravenous routes.
The following routes of administration are not recommended; epidural, intranasal, intraocular and any other unapproved route of administration.
Methylprednisolone acetate with lidocaine is indicated as adjunctive therapy for short-term administration (to tide the patient over an acute episode or exacerbation) in:
• Synovitis of osteoarthritis
• Rheumatoid arthritis
• Acute and subacute bursitis
• Acute gouty arthritis
• Acute nonspecific tenosynovitis
• Post-traumatic osteoarthritis
Depo-Medrol with Lidocaine is contraindicated:
• in patients with known hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients.
• in patients with known hypersensitivity to other local anaesthetics of the amide type.
• in patients who have systemic infection unless specific anti-infective therapy is employed.
• for use by the intrathecal route (due to its potential for neurotoxicity).
• for use by the intravenous route.
Administration of live or live, attenuated vaccines is contraindicated in patients receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids.
Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the minimum period. Frequent patient review is required to appropriately titrate the dose against disease activity.
Depo-Medrol with Lidocaine vials are intended for single dose use only.
Any multidose use of the product may lead to contamination.
Depo-Medrol with Lidocaine is not recommended for intranasal, intra-ocular, or any other unapproved route of administration.
Severe medical events have been reported in association with the intrathecal/epidural routes of administration. Appropriate measures must be taken to avoid intravascular injection.
Due to the absence of a true tendon sheath, the Achilles tendon should not be injected with Depo-Medrol with Lidocaine.
While crystals of adrenal steroids in the dermis suppress inflammatory reactions, their presence may cause disintegration of the cellular elements and physiochemical changes in the ground substance of the connective tissue. The resultant infrequently occurring dermal and/or subdermal changes may form depressions in the skin at the injection site and the possibility of depigmentation. The degree to which this reaction occurs will vary with the amount of adrenal steroid injected. Regeneration is usually complete within a few months or after all crystals of the adrenal steroid have been absorbed. In order to minimize the incidence of dermal and subdermal atrophy, care must be exercised not to exceed recommended doses in injections. Multiple small injections into the area of the lesion should be made whenever possible. The technique of intra-articular injection should include precautions against injection or leakage into the dermis.
Systemic absorption of methylprednisolone occurs following intra-articular injection of Depo-Medrol with Lidocaine. Systemic as well as local effects can therefore be expected.
Adrenal cortical atrophy develops during prolonged therapy and may persist for months after stopping treatment. In patients who have received more than physiological doses of systemic corticosteroids (approximately 6 mg methylprednisolone) for greater than 3 weeks, withdrawal should not be abrupt. How dose reduction should be carried out depends largely on whether the disease is likely to relapse as the dose of systemic corticosteroids is reduced. Clinical assessment of disease activity may be needed during withdrawal. If the disease is unlikely to relapse on withdrawal of systemic corticosteroids, but there is uncertainty about HPA suppression, the dose of systemic corticosteroid may be reduced rapidly to physiological doses. Once a daily dose of 6 mg methylprednisolone is reached, dose reduction should be slower to allow the HPA-axis to recover.
The following precautions apply for parenteral corticosteroids: Following intra-articular injection, the occurrence of a marked increase in pain accompanied by local swelling, further restriction of joint motion, fever, and malaise are suggestive of septic arthritis. If this complication occurs and the diagnosis of sepsis is confirmed, appropriate antimicrobial therapy should be instituted.
No additional benefit derives from the intramuscular administration of Depo-Medrol with Lidocaine. Where parenteral corticosteroid therapy for sustained systemic effect is desired, plain Depo-Medrol should be used.
Local injection of a steroid into a previously infected joint is to be avoided.
Intra-articular corticosteroids are associated with a substantially increased risk of inflammatory response in the joint, particularly bacterial infection introduced with the injection. Charcot-like arthropathies have been reported particularly after repeated injections. Appropriate examination of any joint fluid present is necessary to exclude any bacterial infection, prior to injection.
Corticosteroids should not be injected into unstable joints.
Sterile technique is necessary to prevent infections or contamination.
Immunosuppressant Effects/Increased Susceptibility to Infections: Corticosteroids may increase susceptibility to infection, may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during their use. Suppression of the inflammatory response and immune function increases the susceptibility to fungal, viral and bacterial infections and their severity. The clinical presentation may often be atypical and may reach an advanced stage before being recognised.
With increasing doses of corticosteroids, the rate of occurrence of infectious complications increases. Persons who are on drugs which suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in non-immune children or adults on corticosteroids.
Chickenpox is of serious concern since this normally minor illness may be fatal in immunosuppressed patients. Patients (or parents of children) without a definite history of chickenpox should be advised to avoid close personal contact with chickenpox or herpes zoster and if exposed they should seek urgent medical attention. Passive immunization with varicella/zoster immunoglobin (VZIG) is needed by exposed non-immune patients who are receiving systemic corticosteroids or who have used them within the previous 3 months; this should be given within 10 days of exposure to chickenpox. If a diagnosis of chickenpox is confirmed, the illness warrants specialist care and urgent treatment. Corticosteroids should not be stopped and the dose may need to be increased.
Live vaccines should not be given to individuals with impaired immune responsiveness. The antibody response to other vaccines may be diminished.
If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary as reactivation of the disease may occur. During prolonged corticosteroid therapy, these patients should receive chemoprophylaxis.
The role of corticosteroids in septic shock has been controversial, with early studies reporting both beneficial and detrimental effects. More recently, supplemental corticosteroids have been suggested to be beneficial in patients with established septic shock who exhibit adrenal insufficiency. However, their routine use in septic shock is not recommended. A systematic review of short-course, high-dose corticosteroids did not support their use. However, meta-analyses, and a review suggest that longer courses (5-11 days) of low-dose corticosteroids might reduce mortality, especially in patients with vasopressor-dependent septic shock.
Immune System Effects: Allergic reactions may occur. Because rare instances of skin reactions and anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in patients receiving corticosteroid therapy, appropriate precautionary measures should be taken prior to administration, especially when the patient has a history of drug allergy.
Endocrine Effects: Pharmacologic doses of corticosteroids administered for prolonged periods may result in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) suppression (secondary adrenocortical insufficiency). The degree and duration of adrenocortical insufficiency produced is variable among patients and depends on the dose, frequency, time of administration, and duration of glucocorticoid therapy.
Abrupt withdrawal of systemic corticosteroid treatment, which has continued up to 3 weeks is appropriate if it considered that the disease is unlikely to relapse. Abrupt withdrawal of doses up to 32 mg daily of methylprednisolone for 3 weeks is unlikely to lead to clinically relevant HPA-axis suppression, in the majority of patients. In the following patient groups, gradual withdrawal of systemic corticosteroid therapy should be considered even after courses lasting 3 weeks or less:
• Patients who have had repeated courses of systemic corticosteroids, particularly if taken for greater than 3 weeks.
• When a short course has been prescribed within one year of cessation of long-term therapy (months or years).
• Patients who may have reasons for adrenocortical insufficiency other than exogenous corticosteroid therapy.
• Patients receiving doses of systemic corticosteroid greater than 32 mg daily of methylprednisolone.
• Patients repeatedly taking doses in the evening.
Since mineralocorticoid secretion may be impaired, salt and/or a mineralocorticoid should be administered concurrently.
A steroid “withdrawal syndrome,” seemingly unrelated to adrenocortical insufficiency, may also occur following abrupt discontinuance of glucocorticoids. This syndrome includes symptoms such as: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, headache, fever, joint pain, desquamation, myalgia, weight loss, and/or hypotension. These effects are thought to be due to the sudden change in glucocorticoid concentration rather than to low corticosteroid levels.
Because glucocorticoids can produce or aggravate Cushing’s syndrome, glucocorticoids should be avoided in patients with Cushing’s disease.
There is an enhanced effect of corticosteroids on patients with hypothyroidism.
Metabolism and Nutrition: Corticosteroids, including methylprednisolone, can increase blood glucose, worsen pre-existing diabetes, and predispose those on long-term corticosteroid therapy to diabetes mellitus.
Psychiatric Effects: Patients and/or carers should be warned that potentially severe psychiatric adverse reactions may occur with systemic steroids. Symptoms typically emerge within a few days or weeks of starting treatment. Risks may be higher with high doses/systemic exposure, although dose levels do not allow prediction of the onset, type, severity or duration of reactions. Most reactions recover after either dose reduction or withdrawal, although specific treatment may be necessary. Patients/carers should be encouraged to seek medical advice if worrying psychological symptoms develop, especially if depressed mood or suicidal ideation is suspected. Patients/carers should be alert to possible psychiatric disturbances that may occur either during or immediately after dose tapering/withdrawal of systemic steroids, although such reactions have been reported infrequently.
Particular care is required when considering the use of systemic corticosteroids in patients with existing or previous history of severe affective disorders in themselves or in their first degree relatives. These would include depressive or manic-depressive illness and previous steroid psychosis.
Nervous System Effects: Corticosteroids should be used with caution in patients with seizure disorders.
Corticosteroids should be used with caution in patients with myasthenia gravis (also see myopathy statement in Musculoskeletal Effects section).
There have been reports of epidural lipomatosis in patients taking corticosteroids, typically with long-term use at high doses.
Ocular Effects: Visual disturbance may be reported with systemic and topical corticosteroid use. If a patient presents with symptoms such as blurred vision or other visual disturbances, the patient should be considered for referral to an ophthalmologist for evaluation of possible causes which may include cataract, glaucoma or rare diseases such as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) which have been reported after use of systemic and topical corticosteroids. Central serous chorioretinopathy, may lead to retinal detachment.
Prolonged use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts and nuclear cataracts (particularly in children), exophthalmos, or increased intraocular pressure, which may result in glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses.
Corticosteroids should be used cautiously in patients with ocular herpes simplex, because of possible corneal perforation.
Cardiac Effects: Adverse effects of glucocorticoids on the cardiovascular system, such as dyslipidaemia and hypertension, may predispose treated patients with existing cardiovascular risk factors to additional cardiovascular effects, if high doses and prolonged courses are used. Accordingly, corticosteroids should be employed judiciously in such patients and attention should be paid to risk modification and additional cardiac monitoring if needed.
Systemic corticosteroids should be used with caution, and only if strictly necessary, in cases of congestive heart failure.
Vascular Effects: Corticosteroids should be used with caution in patients with hypertension.
Thrombosis including venous thromboembolism has been reported to occur with corticosteroids. As a result corticosteroids should be used with caution in patients who have or may be predisposed to thromboembolic disorders.
Gastrointestinal Effects: High doses of corticosteroids may produce acute pancreatitis.
There is no universal agreement on whether corticosteroids per se are responsible for peptic ulcers encountered during therapy; however, glucocorticoid therapy may mask the symptoms of peptic ulcer so that perforation or haemorrhage may occur without significant pain.
Glucocorticoid therapy may mask peritonitis or other signs or symptoms associated with gastrointestinal disorders such as perforation, obstruction or pancreatitis. In combination with NSAIDs, the risk of developing gastrointestinal ulcers is increased.
Corticosteroids should be used with caution in nonspecific ulcerative colitis, if there is a probability of impending perforation, abscess or other pyogenic infection. Caution must also be used in diverticulitis, fresh intestinal anastomoses, active or latent peptic ulcer, when steroids are used as direct or adjunctive therapy.
Hepatobiliary Effects: Hepatobiliary disorders have been reported which may be reversible after discontinuation of therapy. Therefore appropriate monitoring is required.
Drug induced liver injury including acute hepatitis or liver enzyme increase can result from cyclical pulsed IV methylprednisolone (usually at initial dose > 1 g / day). Rare cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported. The time to onset can be several weeks or longer. In the majority of case reports resolution of the adverse events has been observed after treatment was discontinued.
Corticosteroids should be used with caution in patients with liver failure or cirrhosis.
Musculoskeletal Effects: An acute myopathy has been reported with the use of high doses of corticosteroids, most often occurring in patients with disorders of neuromuscular transmission (e.g. myasthenia gravis), or in patients receiving concomitant therapy with anticholinergics, such as neuromuscular blocking drugs (e.g. pancuronium). This acute myopathy is generalized, may involve ocular and respiratory muscles, and may result in quadriparesis. Elevations of creatine kinase may occur. Clinical improvement or recovery after stopping corticosteroids may require weeks to years.
Osteoporosis is a common but infrequently recognized adverse effect associated with a long-term use of large doses of glucocorticoid.
Renal and Urinary Disorders: Caution is required in patients with systemic sclerosis because an increased incidence of scleroderma renal crisis has been observed with corticosteroids, including methylprednisolone. Blood pressure and renal function (s-creatinine) should therefore be routinely checked. When renal crisis is suspected, blood pressure should be carefully controlled.
Corticosteroids should be used with caution in patients with renal insufficiency.
Injury, Poisoning and Procedural Complications: Systemic corticosteroids are not indicated for, and therefore should not be used to treat, traumatic brain injury, a multicenter study revealed an increased mortality at 2 weeks and 6 months after injury in patients administered methylprednisolone sodium succinate compared to placebo. A causal association with methylprednisolone sodium succinate treatment has not been established.
Investigations: Average and large doses of hydrocortisone or cortisone can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium. These effects are less likely to occur with the synthetic derivatives except when used in large doses. Dietary salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be necessary. All corticosteroids increase calcium excretion.
Care should be taken for patients receiving cardioactive drugs such as digoxin because of steroid induced electrolyte disturbance/potassium loss.
Other: Corticosteroids should be used with caution in patients with a predisposition to thrombophlebitis.
Co-treatment with CYP3A inhibitors, including cobicistat-containing products, is expected to increase the risk of systemic side-effects. The combination should be avoided unless the benefit outweighs the increased risk of systemic corticosteroid side-effects, in which case patients should be monitored for systemic corticosteroid side-effects.
Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents should be used cautiously in conjunction with corticosteroids.
Pheochromocytoma crisis, which can be fatal, has been reported after administration of systemic corticosteroids. Corticosteroids should only be administered to patients with suspected or identified pheochromocytoma after an appropriate risk/benefit evaluation.
Paediatric population: Intravenous administration of the preservative benzyl alcohol has been associated with serious adverse event, and death in paediatric patients including neonates characterized by central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, gasping respirations, cardio-vascular failure and haematological anomalies (“gasping syndrome”). The minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known. Use only if it is necessary and if there are no alternatives possible. If given in high volumes, should be used with caution and preferably for short term treatment in subjects with liver or kidney impairment because of the risk of accumulation and toxicity (metabolic acidosis).
Premature and low-birth weight infants may be more likely to develop toxicity.
Benzyl Alcohol containing products should not be used in pre-term or full-term neonates unless strictly necessary.
Corticosteroids cause growth retardation in infancy, childhood and adolescence which may be irreversible. Growth and development of infants and children on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should be carefully observed.Treatment should be limited to the minimum dosage for the shortest possible time. The use of such a regimen should be restricted to those most serious indications.
Infants and children on prolonged corticosteroid therapy are at special risk from raised intracranial pressure.
High doses of corticosteroids may produce pancreatitis in children.
The incidence of predictable undesirable side effects associated with the use of corticosteroids, including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal suppression correlates with the relative potency of the drug, dosage, timing of administration and duration of treatment.
See prescribing information for full details.
Methylprednisolone is a cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) substrate and is mainly metabolized by the CYP3A enzyme. CYP3A4 is the dominant enzyme of the most abundant CYP subfamily in the liver of adult humans. It catalyzes 6β-hydroxylation of steroids, the essential Phase I metabolic step for both endogenous and synthetic corticosteroids. Many other compounds are also substrates of CYP3A4, some of which (as well as other drugs) have been shown to alter glucocorticoid metabolism by induction (upregulation) or inhibition of the CYP3A4 enzyme.
CYP3A4 INHIBITORS – Drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 activity generally decrease hepatic clearance and increase the plasma concentration of CYP3A4 substrate medications, such as methylprednisolone. In the presence of a CYP3A4 inhibitor, the dose of methylprednisolone may need to be titrated to avoid steroid toxicity.
CYP3A4 INDUCERS – Drugs that induce CYP3A4 activity generally increase hepatic clearance, resulting in decreased plasma concentration of medications that are substrates for CYP3A4. Coadministration may require an increase in methylprednisolone dosage to achieve the desired result.
CYP3A4 SUBSTRATES – In the presence of another CYP3A4 substrate, the hepatic clearance of methylprednisolone may be affected, with corresponding dosage adjustments required. It is possible that adverse events associated with the use of either drug alone may be more likely to occur with coadministration.
1. Convulsions have been reported with concurrent use of methylprednisolone and ciclosporin (CYP3A4 inhibitor and substrate). Since concurrent administration of these agents results in a mutual inhibition of metabolism (which may increase the plasma concentrations of either or both drugs), it is possible that convulsions and other adverse effects associated with the individual use of either drug may be more apt to occur.
2. Drugs that induce hepatic enzymes, such as rifampicin (antibiotic CYP3A4 inducer), rifabutin, carbamazepine (anticonvulsant CYP3A4 inducer and substrate), phenobarbitone and phenytoin (anticonvulsants CYP3A4 inducers), primidone, and aminoglutethimide (aromatase inhibitor) enhance the metabolism of corticosteroids and its therapeutic effects may be reduced. Aminoglutethimide- induced adrenal suppression may exacerbate endocrine changes caused by prolonged glucocorticoid treatment.
3. Antibiotics/Antimycotics – Drugs such as erythromycin (macrolide antibacterial CYP3A4 inhibitor and substrate), itraconazole and ketoconazole antifungal CYP3A4 inhibitors and substrates) may inhibit the metabolism of corticosteroids and thus decrease their clearance.
Troleandomycin (CYP3A4 inhibitor), as well as clarithromycin, erythromycin, itraconazole and ketoconazole (CYP3A4 inhibitors and substrates) increase the effects and the side effects of methylprednisolone.
The acetylation rate and clearance of isoniazid (CYP3A4 inhibitor), an antibacterial drug, can be increased by methylprednisolone.
4. Steroids may reduce the effects of anticholinesterases in myasthenia gravis.
An acute myopathy has been reported with the concomitant use of high doses of corticosteroids and anticholinergics, such as neuromuscular blocking drugs.
Antagonism of the neuromuscular blocking effects of pancuronium and vecuronium has been reported in patients taking corticosteroids. This interaction may be expected with all competitive neuromuscular blockers.
The desired effects of hypoglycaemic agents (including insulin), anti-hypertensives and diuretics are antagonised by corticosteroids, and the hypokalaemic effects of acetazolamide, loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics and carbenoxolone are enhanced.
5. The effect of methylprednisolone on oral anticoagulants is variable. The efficacy of coumarin anticoagulants may be enhanced by concurrent corticosteroid therapy and close monitoring of the INR or prothrombin time is required to avoid spontaneous bleeding and to maintain the desired anticoagulant effects.
There are also reports of diminished effects of anticoagulants when given concurrently with corticosteroids.
6. There may be increased incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding and ulceration when corticosteroids are given with NSAIDs. Methylprednisolone may increase the clearance of high-dose aspirin,which can lead to decreased salicylate serum levels.
Discontinuation of methylprednisolone treatment can lead to raised salicylate serum levels, which could lead to an increased risk of salicylate toxicity.
7. Antidiabetics – Because corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations, dosage adjustments of antidiabetic agents may be required.
8. Antiemetics – Aprepitant and fosaprepitant (CYP3A4 inhibitors and substrates).
9. Antivirals – HIV protease inhibitors: Indinavir, ritonavir and pharmacokinetic enhancers (cobicistat) (CYP3A4 inhibitors and substrates) may increase plasma concentrations of corticosteroids. Corticosteroids may induce the metabolism of HIV-protease inhibitors resulting in reduced plasma concentrations.
10. Calcium channel blocker – Diltiazem (CYP3A4 inhibitor and substrate).
11. Contraceptives (oral) – Ethinylestradiol/norethindrone (CYP3A4 inhibitors and substrate).
12. Other immunosuppressants like cyclophosphamide and tacrolimus are substrates of CYP3A4.
13. Potassium-depleting agents – When corticosteroids are administered concomitantly with potassium-depleting agents (i.e. diuretics), patients should be observed closely for development of hypokalaemia. There is also an increased risk of hypokalaemia with concurrent use of corticosteroids with amphotericin B, xanthenes, or beta2 agonists.
14. Grapefruit juice – CYP3A4 inhibitor.
Pregnancy and Lactation
Pregnancy: Methylprednisolone: The ability of corticosteroids to cross the placenta varies between individual drugs, however, methylprednisolone does cross the placenta. One retrospective study found an increased incidence of low birth weights in infants born of mothers receiving corticosteroids. In humans, the risk of low birth weight appears to be dose related and may be minimized by administering lower corticosteroid doses.
Lidocaine: The use of local anaesthetics such as lidocaine during labour and delivery may be associated with adverse effects on mother and foetus.
Methylprednisolone acetate with lidocaine: Since adequate human reproductive studies have not been done with methylprednisolone acetate with lidocaine, this medicinal product should be used during pregnancy only after a careful assessment of the benefit-risk ratio to the mother and fetus.
Lidocaine readily crosses the placenta.
Benzyl alcohol can cross the placenta
Lactation: Methylprednisolone: Corticosteroids are distributed in small amounts in breast milk and may suppress growth and interfere with endogenous glucocorticoid production in nursing infants. However, doses of up to 40 mg daily of methylprednisolone are unlikely to cause systemic effects in the infant. Infants of mothers taking higher doses than this may have a degree of adrenal suppression.
Lidocaine: Lidocaine is excreted in human breast milk.
Methylprednisolone acetate with lidocaine
This medicinal product should be used during breast feeding only after a careful assessment of the benefit-risk ratio to the mother and infant.
See prescribing information for full details.
Methylprednisolone: Following overdosage the possibility of adrenal suppression should be guarded against by gradual diminution of dose levels over a period of time. In such event the patient may require to be supported during any further traumatic episode.
Reports of acute toxicity and/or death following overdosage of corticosteroids are rare. In the event of overdosage, no specific antidote is available; treatment is supportive and symptomatic.
Methylprednisolone is dialysable.
Lidocaine: Overdose with lidocaine can manifest itself in a transient stimulation of the central nervous system with early symptoms: yawning, restlessness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, dysarthria, ataxia, hearing and visual disturbances. With moderate intoxication also twitching and convulsions can occur. This can be followed by unconsciousness, respiratory depression and coma. In very severe intoxication due to decreased myocardial contractility and delayed impulse conduction, hypotension and cardiovascular collapse can be expected to be followed by a complete heart block and cardiac arrest.
Convulsions, hypotension and respiratory depression and cardiac events should be treated as necessary. Continual optimal oxygenation and ventilation and circulatory support as well as treatment of acidosis are of vital importance.
Storage: Store below 25°C. Do not freeze.