Presentation and Status in Health Basket
30 X 20 mg
Adults and adolescents 12 years of age and above
Reflux, oesophagitis and associated symptoms (e.g. heartburn, acid regurgitation, pain on swallowing): The recommended oral dose is 20 mg tablet per day. Symptom relief is generally accomplished within 2-4 weeks. If this is not sufficient, symptom relief will normally be achieved within a further 4 weeks. When symptom relief has been achieved, reoccurring symptoms can be controlled using an on-demand regimen of 20 mg once daily, taking one tablet when required. A switch to continuous therapy may be considered in case satisfactory symptom control cannot be maintained with on-demand treatment.
Long-term management and prevention of relapse in reflux oesophagitis: For long-term management, a maintenance dose is 20 mg tablet per day is recommended, increasing to 40 mg pantoprazole per day if a relapse occurs. After healing of the relapse the dose can be reduced again to 20 mg tablet.
Adults: Prevention of gastroduodenal ulcers induced by non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients at risk with a need for continuous NSAID treatment. The recommended oral dose is 20 mg tablet per day.
For the treatment of reflux oesophagitis and associated symptoms (e.g. heartburn, acid regurgitation, pain on swallowing). For long-term management and prevention of relapse in reflux oesophagitis. Prevention of gastroduodenal ulcers induced by non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients at risk with a need for continuous NSAIDs treatment.
Hypersensitivity to the active substance, substituted benzimidazoles or to any of the other excipients.
Hepatic Impairment: In patients with severe liver impairment, the liver enzymes should be monitored regularly during treatment with pantoprazole, particularly on long-term use. In the case of a rise of the liver enzymes, the treatment should be discontinued.
Co-administration with NSAIDs: The use of Controloc 20 mg as a preventive of gastroduodenal ulcers induced by non-selective non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be restricted to patients who require continued NSAID treatment and have an increased risk to develop gastrointestinal complications. The increased risk should be assessed according to individual risk factors, e.g. high age (>65 years), history of gastric or duodenal ulcer or upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
Gastric malignancy: Symptomatic response to pantoprazole may mask the symptoms of gastric malignancy and may delay diagnosis. In the presence of any alarm symptom (e.g. significant unintentional weight loss, recurrent vomiting, dysphagia, haematemesis, anaemia or melaena) and when gastric ulcer is suspected or present, malignancy should be excluded. Further investigation is to be considered if symptoms persist despite adequate treatment.
Co-administration with HIV protease inhibitors: Co-administration of pantoprazole is not recommended with HIV protease inhibitors for which absorption is dependent on acidic intragastric pH such as atazanavir, due to significant reduction in their bioavailability.
Influence on vitamin B12 absorption: In patients with Zollinger-Ellison-Syndrome pantoprazole, as all acid-blocking medicines, may reduce the absorption of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) due to hypo- or achlorhydria. This should be considered in patients with reduced body stores or risk factors for reduced vitamin B12 absorption on long-term therapy or if respective clinical symptoms are observed.
Long term treatment: in long-term treatment, especially when exceeding a treatment period of 1 year, patients should be kept under regular surveillance.
Gastrointestinal infections caused by bacteria: treatment with Pantoprazole may lead to a slightly increased risk of gastrointestinal infections caused by bacteria such as Salmonella and Campylobacter or C. difficile.
Hypomagnesaemia: Severe hypomagnesaemia has been reported in patients treated with PPIs like pantoprazole for at least three months, and in most cases for a year. Serious manifestations of hypomagnesaemia such as fatigue, tetany, delirium, convulsions, dizziness and ventricular arrhythmia can occur but they may begin insidiously and be overlooked. In most affected patients, hypomagnesaemia improved after magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI. For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesaemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals should consider measuring magnesium levels before starting PPI treatment and periodically during treatment.
Bone fractures: Proton pump inhibitors, especially if used in high doses and over long durations (>1 year), may modestly increase the risk of hip, wrist and spine fracture, predominantly in older people or in presence of other recognised risk factors. Observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitors may increase the overall risk of fracture by 10–40%. Some of this increase may be due to other risk factors. Patients at risk of osteoporosis should receive care according to current clinical guidelines and they should have an adequate intake of vitamin D and calcium.
Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE): Proton pump inhibitors are associated with very infrequent cases of SCLE. If lesions occur, especially in sun exposed areas of the skin, and if accompanied by arthralgia, the patient should seek medical help promptly and the healthcare professional should consider stopping Pantoprazole Controloc 20 mg or 40 mg. SCLE after previous treatment with a proton pump inhibitor may increase the risk of SCLE with other proton pump inhibitors.
Interference with Laboratory Tests: increased Chromogranin A (CgA) level may interfere with investigations for neuroendocrine tumours. To avoid this interference, Pantoprazole treatment should be stopped for at least 5 days before CgA measurements. If CgA and gastrin levels have not returned to reference range after initial measurement, measurements should be repeated 14 days after cessation of proton pump inhibitor treatment.
See prescribing information for full details.
Approximately 5 % of patients can be expected to experience adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The most commonly reported ADRs are diarrhoea and headache, both occurring in approximately 1 % of patients.
Additional undesirable effects: Fundic gland polyps (benign), sleep disorders, dizziness, nausea /vomiting, abdominal distension and bloating, constipation, dry mouth, abdominal pain and discomfort, liver enzymes increased (transaminases, γ-GT), rash /exanthema/ eruption, pruritus, fracture of the hip, wrist or spine, asthenia, fatigue and malaise.
See prescribing information for full details.
Medicinal products with pH-Dependent Absorption Pharmacokinetics: Because of profound and long lasting inhibition of gastric acid secretion, pantoprazole may interfere with the absorption of other medicinal products where gastric pH is an important determinant of oral availability, e.g some azole antifungals such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and other medicine such as erlotinib.
HIV protease inhibitors: Co-administration of pantoprazole is not recommended with HIV protease inhibitors for which absorption is dependent on acidic intragastric pH such as atazanavir due to significant reduction in their bioavailability. If the combination of HIV protease inhibitors with a proton pump inhibitor is judged unavoidable, close clinical monitoring (e.g virus load) is recommended. A pantoprazole dose of 20 mg per day should not be exceeded. Dosage of the HIV protease inhibitor may need to be adjusted.
Coumarin anticoagulants (phenprocoumon or warfarin): Co-administration of pantoprazole with warfarin or phenprocoumon did not affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, phenprocoumon or INR. However, there have been reports of increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving PPIs and warfarin or phenprocoumon concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding, and even death. Patients treated with pantoprazole and warfarin or phenprocoumon may need to be monitored for increase in INR and prothrombin time.
Methotrexate: Concomitant use of high dose methotrexate (e.g. 300 mg) and proton-pump inhibitors has been reported to increase methotrexate levels in some patients. Therefore in settings where high-dose methotrexate is used, for example cancer and psoriasis, a temporary withdrawal of pantoprazole may need to be considered.
Other interactions studies: Pantoprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver via the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. The main metabolic pathway is demethylation by CYP2C19 and other metabolic pathways include oxidation by CYP3A4. Interaction studies with medicinal products also metabolized with these pathways, like carbamazepine, diazepam, glibenclamide, nifedipine, and an oral contraceptive containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl oestradiol did not reveal clinically significant interactions. An interaction of pantoprazole with other medicinal products or compounds, which are metabolized using the same enzyme system, cannot be excluded. Results from a range of interaction studies demonstrate that pantoprazole does not eaffect the metabolism of active substances metabolised by CYP1A2 (such as caffeine, theophylline), CYP2C9 (such as piroxicam, diclofenac, naproxen), CYP2D6 (such as metoprolol), CYP2E1 (such as ethanol) or does not interfere with p-glycoprotein related absorption of digoxin. There were no interactions with concomitantly administered antacids. Interaction studies have also been performed by concomitantly administering pantoprazole with the respective antibiotics (clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxycillin). No clinically relevant interactions were found. Medicinal products that inhibit or induce CYP2C19: Inhibitors of CYP2C19 such as fluvoxamine could increase the systemic exposure of pantoprazole. A dose reduction may be considered for patients treated long-term with high doses of pantoprazole, or those with hepatic impairment. Enzyme inducers affecting CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 such as rifampicin and St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) may reduce the plasma concentrations of PPIs that are metabolized through these enzyme systems.
Pregnancy and Lactation
Pregnancy: A moderate amount of data on pregnant women (between 300-1000 pregnancy outcomes) indicate no malformative or feto/ neonatal toxicity of Pantoprazole. Animal studies have shown reproductive toxicity. As a precautionary measure, it is preferable to avoid the use of Pantoprazole during pregnancy.
Lactation: Animal studies have shown excretion of pantoprazole in breast milk. There is insufficient information on the excretion of pantoprazole in human milk but excretion into human milk has been reported. A risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded. Therefore a decision on whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue/abstain from Pantoprazole therapy should take into account the benefit of breast-feeding for the child, and the benefit of Pantoprazole therapy for the woman.
There are no known symptoms of overdose in man. Systemic exposure with up to 240 mg administered intravenously over 2 minutes, were well tolerated. As pantoprazole is extensively protein bound, it is not readily dialyzable. In the case of an overdose with clinical signs of intoxication, apart from symptomatic and supportive treatment, no specific therapeutic recommendations can be made.
Storage: Store below 25ºC.