Presentation and Status in Health Basket
50 X 100 mg
20 X 300 mg
30 X 300 mg
Allopurinol may be taken orally once a day after a meal. It is well tolerated, especially after food. Should the daily dosage exceed 300 mg and gastrointestinal intolerance be manifested, a divided doses regimen may be appropriate.
Management of patients with signs and symptoms of primary or secondary gout (acute attacks, tophi, joint destruction, uric acid lithiasis and/or nephropathy). Management of patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and malignancies who are receiving cancer therapy which causes elevations of serum and urinary uric acid levels. Management of patients with recurrent calcium oxalate calculi whose daily uric acid excretion exceeds 800 mg/day in male patients and 750 mg/day in female patients. Therapy in such patients should be carefully assessed initially and reassessed periodically to determine in each case that treatment is beneficial and that the benefits outweigh the risks.
Allopurinol should not be administered to individuals known to be hypersensitive to allopurinol or to any of the components of the formulation.
See prescribing information for full details.
Hypersensitivity syndrome, SJS and TEN: Allopurinol hypersensitivity reactions can manifest in many different ways, including maculopapular exanthema, hypersensitivity syndrome (also known as DRESS) and SJS/TEN. These reactions are clinical diagnoses, and their clinical presentations remain the basis for decision making. If such reactions occur at any time during treatment, allopurinol should be withdrawn immediately. Rechallenge should not be undertaken in patients with hypersensitivity syndrome and SJS/TEN. Corticosteroids may be beneficial in overcoming hypersensitivity skin reactions.
HLA-B*5801 allele: The HLA-B*5801 allele has been shown to be associated with the risk of developing allopurinol related hypersensitivity syndrome and SJS/TEN. The frequency of the HLA-B*5801 allele varies widely between ethnic populations: up to 20% in Han Chinese population, about 12% in the Korean population and 1-2% in individuals of Japanese or European origin. The use of genotyping as a screening tool to make decisions about treatment with allopurinol has not been established. If the patient is a known carrier of HLA-B*5801, the use of allopurinol may be considered if the benefits are thought to exceed risks. Extra vigilance for signs of hypersensitivity syndrome or SJS/TEN is required and the patient should be informed of the need to stop treatment immediately at the first appearance of symptoms.
Chronic renal impairment: Patients with chronic renal impairment and concomitant diuretic use, in particular thiazides, may be at increased risk of developing hypersensitivity reactions including SJS/TEN associated with allopurinol. Extra vigilance for the signs of hypersensitivity syndrome or SJS/TEN is required and the patient should be informed of the need to stop treatment immediately and permanently at the first appearance of symptoms.
Hepatic or renal impairment: Reduced doses should be used in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. Patients under treatment for hypertension or cardiac insufficiency, for example with diuretics or ACE inhibitors, may have some concomitant impairment of renal function and allopurinol should be used with care in this group.
Asymptomatic hyperuricaemia: Asymptomatic hyperuricaemia per se is generally not considered an indication for use of Alloril. Fluid and dietary modification with management of the underlying cause may correct the condition.
Acute gouty attacks: Allopurinol treatment should not be started until an acute attack of gout has completely subsided, as further attacks may be precipitated. In the early stages of treatment with Alloril, as with uricosuric agents, an acute attack of gouty arthritis may be precipitated. Therefore it is advisable to give prophylaxis with a suitable anti-inflammatory agent or colchicine for at least one month. The literature should be consulted for details of appropriate dosage and precautions and warnings. If acute attacks develop in patients receiving allopurinol, treatment should continue at the same dosage while the acute attack is treated with a suitable anti-inflammatory agent.
Xanthine deposition: In conditions where the rate of urate formation is greatly increased (e.g. malignant disease and its treatment, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome) the absolute concentration of xanthine in urine could, in rare cases, rise sufficiently to allow deposition in the urinary tract. This risk may be minimised by adequate hydration to achieve optimal urine dilution.
Impaction of uric acid renal stones: Adequate therapy with Alloril will lead to dissolution of large uric acid renal pelvic stones, with the remote possibility of impaction in the ureter.
Thyroid disorders: Increased TSH values (>5.5 μIU/mL) were observed in patients on long-term treatment with allopurinol (5.8%) in a long term open label extension study.
Lactose: Alloril tablets contain lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
See prescribing information for full details.
Skin reactions are the most common reactions and may occur at any time during treatment. They may be pruritic, maculopapular, sometimes scaly, sometimes purpuric and rarely exfoliative, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). The highest risk for SJS and TEN, or other serious hypersensitivity reactions, is within the first weeks of treatment.
See prescribing information for full details.
6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine: Azathioprine is metabolised to 6-mercaptopurine which is inactivated by the action of xanthine oxidase. When 6-mercaptopurine or azathioprine is given concurrently with allopurinol, only one-quarter of the usual dose of 6-mercaptopurine or azathioprine should be given because inhibition of xanthine oxidase will prolong their activity.
Vidarabine (Adenine Arabinoside): Evidence suggests that the plasma half-life of vidarabine is increased in the presence of allopurinol. When the two products are used concomitantly extra vigilance is necessary, to recognise enhanced toxic effects.
Salicylates and uricosuric agents: Oxipurinol, the major metabolite of allopurinol and itself therapeutically active, is excreted by the kidney in a similar way to urate. Hence, drugs with uricosuric activity such as probenecid or large doses of salicylate may accelerate the excretion of oxipurinol. This may decrease the therapeutic activity of Alloril, but the significance needs to be assessed in each case.
Chlorpropamide: If Alloril is given concomitantly with chlorpropamide when renal function is poor, there may be an increased risk of prolonged hypoglycaemic activity because allopurinol and chlorpropamide may compete for excretion in the renal tubule.
Coumarin anticoagulants: There have been rare reports of increased effect of warfarin and other coumarin anticoagulants when co-administered with allopurinol, therefore, all patients receiving anticoagulants must be carefully monitored.
Phenytoin: Allopurinol may inhibit hepatic oxidation of phenytoin but the clinical significance has not been demonstrated.
Theophylline: Inhibition of the metabolism of theophylline has been reported. The mechanism of the interaction may be explained by xanthine oxidase being involved in the biotransformation of theophylline in man. Theophylline levels should be monitored in patients starting or increasing allopurinol therapy.
Ampicillin/Amoxicillin: An increase in frequency of skin rash has been reported among patients receiving ampicillin or amoxicillin concurrently with allopurinol compared to patients who are not receiving both drugs. The cause of the reported association has not been established. However, it is recommended that in patients receiving allopurinol an alternative to ampicillin or amoxicillin is used where available.
Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, bleomycin, procarbazine, mechloroethamine: Enhanced bone marrow suppression by cyclophosphamide and other cytotoxic agents has been reported among patients with neoplastic disease (other than leukaemia), in the presence of allopurinol. However, in a well-controlled study of patients treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, bleomycin, procarbazine and/or mechloroethamine (chlormethine hydrochloride) allopurinol did not appear to increase the toxic reaction of these cytotoxic agents.
Ciclosporin: Reports suggest that the plasma concentration of ciclosporin may be increased during concomitant treatment with allopurinol. The possibility of enhanced ciclosporin toxicity should be considered if the drugs are co-administered.
Didanosine: In healthy volunteers and HIV patients receiving didanosine, plasma didanosine Cmax and AUC values were approximately doubled with concomitant allopurinol treatment (300 mg daily) without affecting terminal half-life. Co-administration of these 2 drugs is generally not recommended. If concomitant use is unavoidable, a dose reduction of didanosine may be required, and patients should be closely monitored.
Diuretics: An interaction between allopurinol and furosemide that results in increased serum urate and plasma oxypurinol concentrations has been reported. An increased risk of hypersensitivity has been reported when allopurinol is given with diuretics, in particular thiazides, especially in renal impairment.
Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: An increased risk of hypersensitivity has been reported when allopurinol is given with ACE inhibitors especially in renal impairment.
Pregnancy and Lactation
Pregnancy: There is inadequate evidence of safety of allopurinol in human pregnancy, although it has been in wide use for many years without apparent ill consequence. Use in pregnancy only when there is no safer alternative and when the disease itself carries risks for the mother or unborn child.
Lactation: Reports indicate that allopurinol and oxipurinol are excreted in human breast milk. Concentrations of 1.4 mg/litre allopurinol and 53.7 mg/litre oxipurinol have been demonstrated in breast milk from a woman taking allopurinol 300 mg/day. However, there are no data concerning the effects of allopurinol or its metabolites on the breast-fed baby.
Ingestion of up to 22.5 g allopurinol without adverse effect has been reported. Symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and dizziness have been reported in a patient who ingested 20 g allopurinol. Recovery followed general supportive measures. Massive absorption of Alloril may lead to considerable inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity, which should have no untoward effects unless affecting concomitant medication, especially with 6-mercaptopurine and/or azathioprine. Adequate hydration to maintain optimum diuresis facilitates excretion of allopurinol and its metabolites. If considered necessary haemodialysis may be used.