Presentation and Status in Health Basket
Solution for peritoneal dialysis
2 liter, 2.5 liter
Posology: Extraneal is recommended for use during the longest dwell period, i.e. in CAPD usually overnight and in APD for the long daytime dwell.
• The mode of therapy, frequency of treatment, exchange volume, duration of dwell and length of dialysis should be initiated and supervised by the physician.
Adults: By intraperitoneal administration limited to a single exchange in each 24 hour-period, as part of a CAPD or APD regimen.
The volume to be instilled should be given over a period of approximately 10 to 20 minutes at a rate which the patient finds comfortable. For adult patients of normal body size the instilled volume should not exceed 2.0 L. For larger patients (more than 70-75 kg), a fill volume of 2.5 L may be used.
If the instilled volume causes discomfort due to abdominal tension the instilled volume should be reduced. The recommended dwell time is between 6 and 12 hours in CAPD and 14-16 hours in APD. Drainage of the fluid is by gravity at a rate comfortable for the patient.
Older people: As for Adults.
Paediatric population: Not recommended for use in children (less than 18 years).
Administration: Precautions to be taken before handling or administering the medicinal product
– EXTRANEAL is intended for intraperitoneal administration only. Not for intravenous injection.
– Peritoneal dialysis solutions may be warmed in the overpouch to 37°C to enhance patient comfort. However, only dry heat (for example, heating pad, warming plate) should be used.
Solutions should not be heated in water or in a microwave oven due to the potential for patient injury or discomfort.
– Aseptic technique should be employed throughout the peritoneal dialysis procedure.
– Do not administer if the solution is discoloured, cloudy, contains particulate matter or shows evidence of leakage, or if seals are not intact.
– The drained fluid should be inspected for the presence of fibrin or cloudiness, which may indicate the presence of infection or aseptic peritonitis.
– For single use only.
Extraneal is recommended as a once daily replacement for a single glucose exchange as part of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) regimen for the treatment of chronic renal failure, particularly for patients who have lost ultrafiltration on glucose solutions, because it can extend time on CAPD therapy in such patients.
• Hypersensitivity to the active substance(s) or to any of the excipients
• a known allergy to starch based polymers (e.g. maize starch) and/or icodextrin
• maltose or isomaltose intolerance
• glycogen storage disease
• pre-existing severe lactic acidosis.
• uncorrectable mechanical defects that prevent effective PD or increase the risk of infection
• Documented loss of peritoneal function or extensive adhesions that
compromise peritoneal function
Patients with diabetes mellitus often need additional insulin in order to maintain glycaemic control during Peritoneal Dialysis (PD). Transfer from glucose based PD solution to Extraneal may necessitate an adjustment of the usual insulin dosage. Insulin can be administered intraperitoneally.
• Blood glucose measurement must be done with a glucose specific method to prevent maltose interference. Glucose dehydrogenase pyrroloquinolinequinone
(GDH- PQQ) or glucose-dye-oxidoreductase (GDO)-based methods should not
be used. Also, the use of some glucose monitors and test strips using glucose
dehydrogenase flavin- adenine dinucleotide (GDH-FAD) methodology has
resulted in falsely elevated glucose readings due to the presence of maltose.
The manufacturer(s) of the monitor and test strips should be contacted to
determine if icodextrin or maltose causes interference or falsely elevated
• If GDH-PQQ, GDO, or GDH-FAD-based methods are used, using Extraneal
may cause a falsely high glucose reading, which could result in the
administration of more insulin than needed. Administration of more insulin
than needed has caused hypoglycaemia, which has resulted in loss of
consciousness, coma, neurological damage and death. Additionally, falsely
elevated blood glucose measurements due to maltose interference may mask
true hypoglycaemia and allow it to go untreated with similar consequences.
Falsely elevated glucose levels may be measured up to two weeks following
cessation of EXTRANEAL (icodextrin) therapy when GDH-PQQ, GDO or
GDH-FAD-based blood glucose monitors and test strips are used.
Because GDH-PQQ, GDO, or GDH-FAD-based blood glucose monitors may be used in hospital settings, it is important that the health care providers of peritoneal dialysis patients using EXTRANEAL (icodextrin) carefully review the product information of the blood glucose testing system, including that of test strips, to determine if the system is appropriate for use with EXTRANEAL (icodextrin).
To avoid improper insulin administration, educate patients to alert healthcare
providers of this interaction whenever they are admitted to the hospital.
• Peritoneal dialysis should be done with caution in patients with: 1)
abdominal conditions, including disruption of the peritoneal membrane and
diaphragm by surgery, from congenital anomalies or trauma until healing is
complete, abdominal tumours, abdominal wall infection, hernias, faecal
fistula, colostomy or iliostomy, frequent episodes of diverticulitis,
inflammatory or ischemic bowel disease, large polycystic kidneys, or other conditions that compromise the integrity of the abdominal wall, abdominal surface, or intra-abdominal cavity; and 2) other conditions including recent aortic graft replacement and severe pulmonary disease.
• Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is considered to be a known, rare complication of peritoneal dialysis therapy. EPS has been reported in patients using peritoneal dialysis solutions including some patients using EXTRANEAL as part of their PD therapy. Infrequently, fatal outcomes have been reported with EXTRANEAL.
• Patients with conditions known to increase the risk of lactic acidosis [e.g., severe hypotension, sepsis, acute renal failure, inborn errors of metabolism, treatment with drugs such as metformin and nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)] should be monitored for occurrence of lactic acidosis before the start of treatment and during treatment with lactate-based
peritoneal dialysis solutions.
• When prescribing the solution to be used for an individual patient, consideration should be given to the potential interaction between the dialysis treatment and therapy directed at other existing illnesses. Serum potassium levels should be monitored carefully in patients treated with cardiac glycosides.
• Peritoneal reactions, including abdominal pain, cloudy effluents with or
without bacteria (aseptic peritonitis) have been associated with Extraneal. In case of peritoneal reactions, the patient should keep the icodextrin drained fluid bag along with its batch number, and contact the medical team for analysis of the drained fluid bag.
The drained fluid should be inspected for the presence of fibrin or cloudiness, which may indicate the presence of infection or aseptic peritonitis. Patients should be asked to inform their physician if this occurs and appropriate microbiologicalsamples should be drawn. The initiation of antibiotic treatment should be a clinical decision based on whether or not infection is suspected. If other possible reasons for cloudy fluid have been excluded, Extraneal should be stopped and the result of this action evaluated. If Extraneal is stopped and the fluid becomes clear afterwards, Extraneal should not be reintroduced unless under close supervision. If by re-challenging with Extraneal, the cloudy fluid recurs then this patient should not be prescribed Extraneal again. Alternative peritoneal dialysis therapy should be initiated and the patient should be kept under close supervision.
• If peritonitis occurs, the choice and dosage of antibiotics should be based upon the results of identification and sensitivity studies of the isolated organism(s) when possible. Prior to identification of the involved organism(s),
broadspectrum antibiotics may be indicated.
• Rarely, serious hypersensitivity reactions to Extraneal have been reported such as toxic epidermal necrolysis, angioedema, erythema multiforme and vasculitis. Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions may occur. Stop the infusion immediately and drain the solution from the peritoneal cavity if any signs or symptoms of a suspected hypersensitivity reaction develop. Appropriate therapeutic countermeasures must be instituted as clinically indicated.
• Extraneal is not recommended in patients with acute renal failure.
• Protein, amino acids, water-soluble vitamins and other medicines may be lost
during peritoneal dialysis and may require replacement.
• Patients should be carefully monitored to avoid over or under hydration.
Enhanced ultra-filtration, particularly in elderly patients, may lead to dehydration, resulting in hypotension and possibly neurological symptoms.
An accurate fluid balance record should be kept and the patient’s body weight monitored.
• Overinfusion of an EXTRANEAL volume into the peritoneal cavity may be characterised by abdominal distension, feeling of fullness and/or shortness of breath.
• Treatment of EXTRANEAL overinfusion is to release the EXTRANEAL from the peritoneal cavity by drainage of the EXTRANEAL volume contained within the peritoneal cavity.
• In common with other peritoneal dialysis fluids, Icodextrin should be used with caution, after careful evaluation of its potential risks and benefits, in patients with conditions which preclude normal nutrition, with impaired respiratory function or with potassium deficiency.
• Fluid, haematology, blood chemistry, and electrolyte concentrations should be monitored periodically, including magnesium and bicarbonate. If serum magnesium levels are low, oral magnesium supplements or peritoneal dialysis solutions containing higher magnesium concentrations may be used.
• A decrease in the serum sodium and chloride level has been observed in some
patients. Though these decreases have been regarded as clinically nonsignificant, it is recommended that serum electrolyte levels are monitored
• A decrease in serum amylase levels has also been noticed as a common finding in PD patients on long term treatment. The decrease has not been reported to be accompanied with any side effects. However, it is not known whether subnormal amylase level may mask the rise in serum amylase, commonly seen during acute pancreatitis. An increase in serum alkaline phosphatase of approximately 20 IU/L was seen during clinical trials. There were individual cases where increased alkaline phosphatase was associated with elevated SGOT levels.
Paediatric population: Extraneal is not recommended in children.
Extraneal associated skin reactions, including rash and pruritus, are generally mild or moderate in severity. Occasionally, these rashes have been associated with exfoliation. In the event of this occurring and depending on the severity, Extraneal should be withdrawn at least temporarily.
See prescribing information for full details.
No interaction studies have been conducted with EXTRANEAL. The blood concentrations of dialysable drugs may be reduced by dialysis. Corrective therapy should be instituted if necessary.
Blood glucose measurement must be done with a glucose-specific method to prevent maltose interference. Glucose dehydrogenase pyrroloquinolinequinone (GDH-PQQ)- or glucose-dyeoxidoreductase–based methods must not be used. Also, the use of some glucose monitors and test strips using glucose dehydrogenase flavin-adenine dinucleotide (GDH-FAD) methodology has resulted in falsely elevated glucose readings due to the presence of maltose.
Pregnancy and Lactation
Pregnancy: There are no or limited amount of data from the use of Extraneal in pregnant women. Extraneal is not recommended during pregnancy and in women of childbearing potential not using contraception.
Lactation: It is unknown whether Extraneal metabolites are excreted in human milk. A risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded.
A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue/abstain from Extraneal therapy taking into account the benefit of breast feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.
No data are available on the effects of overdosage. However, continuous administration of more than one bag of Extraneal in 24 hours would increase plasma levels of carbohydrate metabolites and maltose. The effects of such an increase are unknown but an increase in plasma osmolality may occur. Treatment could be managed by Icodextrin-free peritoneal dialysis or haemodialysis.
Storage: Store between 4°C- 25°C.