Presentation and Status in Health Basket
Use in adults, including the elderly: The dose is one drop of AZARGA in the conjunctival sac of the affected eye(s) twice daily. When using nasolacrimal occlusion or closing the eyelids, the systemic absorption is reduced. This may result in a decrease in systemic side effects and an increase in local activity. If a dose is missed, treatment should be continued with the next dose as planned. The dose should not exceed one drop in the affected eye (s) twice daily. When substituting another ophthalmic antiglaucoma medicinal product with AZARGA eye drops, suspension, the other medicinal product should be discontinued and AZARGA should be started the following day.
Paediatric population: The safety and efficacy of AZARGA in children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years have not yet been established. No data are available.
Hepatic and renal impairment: No studies have been conducted with AZARGA or with timolol 5 mg/ml eye drops in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with hepatic impairment or in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. AZARGA has not been studied in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 ml/min) or in patients with hyperchloraemic acidosis. Since brinzolamide and its main metabolite are excreted predominantly by the kidney, AZARGA is therefore contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment. AZARGA should be used with caution in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Method of administration: For ocular use. Patients should be instructed to shake the bottle well before use. After cap is removed, if tamper evident snap collar is loose, remove before using product. To prevent contamination of the dropper tip and the suspension, care must be taken not to touch the eyelids, surrounding areas or other surfaces with the dropper tip of the bottle. Instruct patients to keep the bottle tightly closed when not in use. If more than one topical ophthalmic medicinal product is being used, the medicinal products must be administered at least 5 minutes apart. Eye ointments should be administered last.
Decrease of intraocular pressure (IOP) in adult patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension for whom monotherapy provides insufficient IOP reduction.
Hypersensitivity to the active substances, or to any of the excipients. Hypersensitivity to other beta-blockers. Hypersensitivity to sulphonamides. Reactive airway disease including bronchial asthma or a history of bronchial asthma, or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sinus bradycardia, sick sinus syndrome, sino-atrial block, second or third degree atrioventricular block not controlled with pace-maker. Overt cardiac failure, cardiogenic shock. Severe allergic rhinitis. Hyperchloraemic acidosis. Severe renal impairment.
Systemic effects: Brinzolamide and timolol are absorbed systemically. Due to the beta-adrenergic blocking component, timolol, the same types of cardiovascular, pulmonary and other adverse reactions seen with systemic beta-adrenergic blocking agents may occur. The incidence of systemic adverse reactions after topical ophthalmic administration is lower than for systemic administration.
Hypersensitivity reactions common to all sulphonamide derivates can occur in patients receiving AZARGA as it is absorbed systemically.
Cardiac disorders: In patients with cardiovascular diseases (e.g. coronary heart disease, Prinzmetal’s angina and cardiac failure) and hypotension, therapy with beta-blockers should be critically assessed and the therapy with other active substances should be considered. Patients with cardiovascular diseases should be watched for signs of deterioration of these diseases and of adverse reactions. Due to its negative effect on conduction time, beta-blockers should only be given with caution to patients with first degree heart block.
Vascular disorders: Patients with severe peripheral circulatory disturbance/disorders (i.e. severe forms of Raynaud’s disease or Raynaud’s syndrome) should be treated with caution.
Hyperthyroidism: Beta-blockers may also mask the signs of hyperthyroidism. Muscle weakness: Beta-adrenergic blocking medicinal products have been reported to potentiate muscle weakness consistent with certain myasthenic symptoms (e.g. diplopia, ptosis and generalised weakness).
Respiratory disorders: Respiratory reactions, including death due to bronchospasm in patients with asthma have been reported following administration of some ophthalmic beta-blockers. AZARGA should be used with caution, in patients with mild/moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk.
Hypoglycaemia/diabetes: Beta-blockers should be administered with caution in patients subject to spontaneous hypoglycaemia or to patients with labile diabetes, as beta-blockers may mask the signs and symptoms of acute hypoglycaemia.
Acid/base disturbances: AZARGA contains brinzolamide, a sulphonamide. The same types of adverse reactions that are attributable to sulphonamides may occur with topical administration. Acid-base disturbances have been reported with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. This medicinal product should be used with caution in patients with risk of renal impairment because of the possible risk of metabolic acidosis. If signs of serious reactions or hypersensitivity occur, discontinue the use of this medicinal product.
Mental alertness: Oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may impair the ability to perform tasks requiring mental alertness and/or physical coordination. AZARGA is absorbed systemically and therefore this may occur with topical administration.
Anaphylactic reactions: While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of atopy or a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge with such allergens and unresponsive to the usual doses of adrenaline used to treat anaphylactic reactions.
Choroidal detachment: Choroidal detachment has been reported with administration of aqueous suppressant therapy (e.g. timolol, acetazolamide) after filtration procedures.
Surgical anaesthesia: Beta-blocking ophthalmological preparations may block systemic beta-agonist effects e.g. of adrenaline. The anaesthesiologist should be informed when the patient is receiving timolol.
Concomitant therapy: The effect on intra-ocular pressure or the known effects of systemic beta blockade may be potentiated when Timolol is given to the patients already receiving a systemic beta-blocking agent. The response of these patients should be closely observed. The use of two topical beta-adrenergic blocking agents or two local carbonic anhydrase inhibitors is not recommended. There is potential for an additive effect on the known systemic effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibition in patients receiving an oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and AZARGA. The concomitant administration of AZARGA and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors has not been studied and is not recommended.
Ocular effects: There is limited experience with AZARGA in the treatment of patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma or pigmentary glaucoma. Caution should be utilised in treating these patients and close monitoring of IOP is recommended.
AZARGA has not been studied in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma and its use is not recommended in these patients. Ophthalmic beta-blockers may induce dryness of eyes. Patients with corneal diseases should be treated with caution. The possible role of brinzolamide on corneal endothelial function has not been investigated in patients with compromised corneas (particularly in patients with low endothelial cell count). Specifically, patients wearing contact lenses have not been studied and careful monitoring of these patients when using brinzolamide is recommended, since carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may affect corneal hydration. This may lead to a corneal decompensation and oedema and wearing contact lenses might increase the risk for the cornea. Careful monitoring of patients with compromised corneas, such as patients with diabetes mellitus or corneal dystrophies, is recommended. AZARGA may be used while wearing contact lenses with careful monitoring.
Benzalkonium chloride: AZARGA contains benzalkonium chloride which may cause eye irritation and is known to discolour soft contact lenses. Contact with soft contact lenses should be avoided. Patients must be instructed to remove contact lenses prior to the application of AZARGA and wait 15 minutes after instillation of the dose before reinsertion.
Benzalkonium chloride has also been reported to cause punctate keratopathy and/or toxic ulcerative keratopathy. Close monitoring is required with frequent or prolonged use.
Hepatic impairment: AZARGA should be used with caution in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Common: Dysgeusia, punctate keratitis, blurred vision, eye pain, eye irritation, heart rate decreased.
See prescribing information for full details.
No specific drug interaction studies have been performed with AZARGA.
AZARGA contains brinzolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and, although administered topically, is absorbed systemically. Acid-base disturbances have been reported with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. The potential for interactions must be considered in patients receiving AZARGA.
There is a potential for an additive effect on the known systemic effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibition in patients receiving an oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and brinzolamide eye drops. The concomitant administration of eye drops containing brinzolamide and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors is not recommended.
The cytochrome P-450 isozymes responsible for metabolism of brinzolamide include CYP3A4 (main), CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8 and CYP2C9. It is expected that inhibitors of CYP3A4 such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, clotrimazole, ritonavir and troleandomycin will inhibit the metabolism of brinzolamide by CYP3A4. Caution is advised if CYP3A4 inhibitors are given concomitantly. However, accumulation of brinzolamide is unlikely as renal elimination is the major route. Brinzolamide is not an inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 isozymes.
There is a potential for additive effects resulting in hypotension and/or marked bradycardia when an ophthalmic beta-blocker solution is administered concomitantly with oral calcium channel blockers, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, antiarrhythmics (including amiodarone), digitalis glycosides, parasympathomimetics, guanethidine.
Beta blockers can decrease the response to adrenaline used to treat anaphylactic reactions. Special caution should be exercised in patients with a history of atopy or anaphylaxis.
The hypertensive reaction to sudden withdrawal of clonidine can be potentiated when taking beta-blockers. Caution is recommended in the concomitant use of this medicinal product with clonidine.
Potentiated systemic beta-blockade (e.g. decreased heart rate, depression) has been reported during combined treatment with CYP2D6 inhibitors (e.g. quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine) and timolol. Caution is recommended.
Beta-blockers may increase the hypoglycaemic effect of antidiabetic agents. Beta-blockers can mask the signs and symptoms of hypoglycaemia.
Mydriasis resulting from concomitant use of ophthalmic beta-blockers and adrenaline (epinephrine) has been reported occasionally.
Pregnancy and Lactation
Pregnancy: There are no adequate data regarding the use of ophthalmic brinzolamide and timolol in pregnant women. AZARGA should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary.
Lactation: It is not known whether ophthalmic brinzolamide is excreted in human breast milk. However, a risk to the suckling child cannot be excluded. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue/abstain from AZARGA therapy taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.
See prescribing information for full details.
In case of accidental ingestion, symptoms of overdose from beta blockade may include bradycardia, hypotension, cardiac failure and bronchospasm. If overdose with AZARGA eye drops occurs, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. Due to brinzolmide electrolyte imbalance, development of an acidotic state, and possibly central nervous system effects may occur. Serum electrolyte levels (particularly potassium) and blood pH levels should be monitored. Studies have shown that timolol does not dialyse readily.
Storage: Do not store above 30°C.
Shelf-life: Discard 4 weeks after first opening.