Presentation and Status in Health Basket
Film Coated Tablets
20 X 10 mg
Posology: The following dosage regimens are recommended for treatment with Duphaston. The quantities can be adjusted according to the seriousness of the disorder to be treated and the individual patients’ responses to the treatment.
Regulation of the cycle: It is possible to achieve a cycle lasting 28 days by giving 1 tablet of Duphaston a day from the 11th to the 25th day of the cycle.
Endometriosis: 1 to 3 tablets of Duphaston a day from the 5th to the 25th day of the cycle or for the entire cycle. Dosages of 10 mg several times a day should be spread over the day. It is recommended that treatment should start at the highest dose.
Dysmenorrhoea: 1 to 2 tablets of Duphaston a day from the 5th to the 25th day of the cycle. Dosages of 10 mg several times a day should be spread over the day. It is recommended that treatment should start at the highest dose.
Infertility as a result of corpus luteum insufficiency: 1 tablet of Duphaston a day from the 14th to the 25th day of the cycle. Treatment should be continued for at least 6 consecutive cycles. It is advisable to continue this treatment for the first months of any pregnancy at dosages as indicated for habitual abortion.
Threatened abortion: Habitual abortion: 1 tablet of Duphaston a day up to the 20th week of pregnancy; the dose can then be gradually reduced. Treatment should preferably be started before conception. If the symptoms of threatened abortion occur during treatment, treatment should be continued as described for that indication.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding: Bleeding is stopped by 2 tablets of Duphaston a day for 5 to 7 days. The blood loss is reduced considerably within a few days. A few days after the end of this treatment, a heavy withdrawal bleed occurs and the patient should be warned about this.
Subsequent heavy bleeding can be prevented by prescribing a prohylactic dose of 1 tablet of Duphaston a day from the 11th to the 25th day of the cycle, if necessary combined with an oestrogen for 2 to 3 cycles. After this the treatment can be discontinued, in order to check that the patient has a normal cycle again.
Secondary amenorrhoea: 1 or 2 tablets of Duphaston per day from the 11th to the 25th day of the cycle to give optimum secretion transformation of the endometrium, that is adequately prepared with an endogenous or exogenous oestrogen.
Pre-menstrual syndrome: 10 mg twice daily from day 11 to day 26 of the cycle.
There is no relevant use of dydrogesterone before the menarche. The safety and efficacy of dydrogesterone in adolescents aged from 12 to 18 years has not been established.
Method of administration: For oral use.
For administration of higher doses the tablets should be taken in divided doses over the day.
For full details see prescribing information.
Cases where progesterone supplement is needed.
Vaginal bleeding, where the cause has not been established. Presence of serious liver disorders, or serious liver disorders in the medical history until the liver function values have returned to normal.
Contraindications for use of oestrogens in combination with progestogens such as dydrogesterone in combined therapy; Known hypersensitivity to dydrogesterone or any of the excipients. Known or suspected sex hormone dependent malignancies.
Before starting treatment with dydrogesterone because of disfunctional uterine bleeding an organic cause should be excluded. Breakthrough bleeding and spotting may occur during the first months of treatment. If breakthrough bleeeding and spotting continue to occur when treatment has already been underway for some time, or continue when treatment is discontinued, the cause of this should be ascertained, if necessary by taking an endometrial biopsy to exclude malignancy of the endometrium.
If one of the following disorders occurs during use for the first time or gets worse, stopping the treatment should be considered.
Exceptionally severe headache, migraine or symptoms that may indicate cerebral ischemia.
Marked increase in blood pressure.
Occurrence of venous thromboembolism.
In cases of habitual or threatened abortion, the viability of the foetus should be ascertained, and it is necessary to monitor during treatment whether the pregnancy is still progressing and whether the embryo is still alive.
Conditions for which monitoring is necessary: It is known that the following rarely occurring conditions may be affected by sex hormones and may arise or get worse during pregnancy or during the use of sex hormones: cholestatic icterus, herpes gestationis, severe pruritus, otosclerosis and porphyria.
Patients with a history of depression must be carefully monitored; if severe depression recurs, treatment with dydrogesterone must be stopped.
Other conditions: Patients with rare hereditary conditions such as galactose intolerance, Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not use this medicinal product.
The adverse effects of this product most commonly reported in patients who were treated with drydrogesterone during clinical trials into indications without the use of oestrogen were metrorrhagia, painful/ sensitive breasts and migraine/headache.
Adverse effects that may occur during treatment with oestrogen-progestogen: Breast cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial carcinoma, ovarian cancer. Venous thromboembolism. Myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, ischemic CVA.
For full details see prescribing information.
Data from in vitro studies show that dydrogesterone and its main metabolite 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone (DHD) may be broken down by the P 450 cytochrome isoenzymes 3A4 and 2C19.
The metabolisation of dydrogesterone may therefore be increased by concomittant use of substances known to induce these isoenzymes, such as anticonvulsants (e.g. phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine), anti-infectives (e.g. rifampicin, rifabutin, nevirapine, efavirenz) and herbal preparations containing e.g. St. John’s Wort (hypericum perforatum), valerian root, sage, or gingko biloba.
Ritonavir and nelfinavir are of course well-known powerful inhibitors of cytochrome enzymes but do in fact have an enzyme-inducing action if they are used concomitantly with steroid hormones.
Clinically an increase in the metabolisation of dydrogesterone may lead to a reduction in effect and changes in the bleeding pattern. In vitro studies show that dydrogesterone and DHD enzymes that metabolise CYP substances do not inhibit or induce.
Pregnancy and Lactation
Pregnancy: It is estimated that over 9 million women have already been exposed to dydrogesterone during pregnancy. To date there were no indications that the use of dydrogesterone during pregnancy has a harmful effect. In the literature a study is described in which it was found that the use of some progestogens can be accompanied by an increase in the risk of hypospadia occurring. However, because this has not been clearly confirmed to date in other studies, no final conclusion can be drawn about the effect of progestogens on the occurrence of hypospadia.
Clinical trials in which a limited number of women were treated with dydrogesterone in the first stage of pregnancy did not show that the risk is increased. To date no other epidemiological data are available.
The effects that were observed during non-clinical study into embryo-foetal and postnatal development corresponded with the pharmacological profile. Unwanted effects only occurred in case of exposure that was considerably higher than the maximum exposure in humans (see section 5.3).
Dydrogesterone may be administered during pregnancy if there is a clear indication for this.
Lactation: It is not known whether dydrogesterone is excreted in breast milk. No research has been done into the excretion of dydrogesterone in breast milk. Experiences with other progestogens indicate that progestogens and their metabolites are found in small quantities in breast milk. It is not known whether there is a risk for the child. Dydrogesterone should therefore not be used while breastfeeding.
Symptoms: Dydrogesterone is a substance with very low toxicity. Nausea, vomiting, lethargy and dizziness are symptoms which may theoretically occur in the event of an overdose. There are no known cases in which an overdose of dydrogesterone led to harmful effects.
Treatment: Specific treatment is clearly not necessary. In case of overdose symptomatic treatment may be considered.